One Europe or None

  • Richard Sakwa University of Kent


The European post-Cold War order assumed monist forms. Instead of the geopolitical and ideological diversity sought by Mikhail Gorbachev as he brought the Cold War to an end in the late 1980s, a type of monist cold peace was imposed in which Atlantic security institutions and ideas were consolidated. The monism was both institutional and ideational, and the two reinforced each other in a hermetic order that sought to insulate itself from critique and transformation. Russia was excluded as anything but subaltern. The post-Cold War European peace order was thus built on weak foundations, provoking a cycle of mimetic rivalry. In Russia the fateful dialectic of external challenge and domestic stultification once again operated, heightening the Kremlin’s threat perceptions. Russia’s relations with the European Union (EU) and Washington veered between the cooperative and the confrontational, until settling into a conflictual mode in 2014, as it is argued in the article.


monism, neo-revisionism, Russia, European Union, United States

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SAKWA, Richard. One Europe or None. Debater a Europa, [S.l.], n. 18, p. 35-48, jan. 2018. ISSN 1647-6336. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 19 jun. 2019.