Toward a Formal Ontology for Narrative

  • Fabio Ciotti Università di Roma Tor Vergata

Abstract

In this paper the rationale and the first draft of a formal ontology for modeling narrative texts are presented. Building on the semiotic and structuralist narratology, and on the work carried out in the late 1980s by Giuseppe Gigliozzi in Italy, the focus of my research are the concepts of character and of narrative world/space. This formal model is expressed in the OWL 2 ontology language. The main reason to adopt a formal modeling approach is that I consider the purely probabilistic-quantitative methods (now widespread in digital literary studies) inadequate. An ontology, on one hand provides a tool for the analysis of strictly literary texts. On the other hand (though beyond the scope of the present work), its formalization can also represent a significant contribution towards grounding the application of storytelling methods outside of scholarly contexts.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14195/2182-8830_4-1_2

  • Abstract viewed = 320 times
  • HTML viewed = 58 times
  • PDF viewed = 134 times

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ANTONIOU, Grigoris, Frank Van Harmelen (2008). A Semantic Web Primer. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

BAADER, Franz, Sebastian Brandt, and Carsten Lutz (2005). “Pushing the EL envelope.” IJCAI. 5: 364-369.

BERNERS-LEE, Tim, James Hendler, and Ora Lassila (2001). “The Seman-tic Web.” Scientific American 284.5: 34–43. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0501-34.

CIOTTI, Fabio (2014). “Digital Literary and Cultural Studies: State of the Art and Perspectives.” Between 4.8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13125/2039-6597/1392.

DAMIANO, Rossana, Antonio Lieto (2013). “Ontological Representations of Narratives: a Case Study on Stories and Actions.” Proceedings of CMN13 (Computational Models of Narratives). Hamburg. 76-83.

DENNETT, Daniel C. (1990). “The Interpretation of Texts, People and Other Artifacts.” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research: 177-194.

DOLEŽEL, Lubomír (1998). Heterocosmica: Fiction and Possible Worlds. Balti-more: Johns Hopkins University Press.

ECO, Umberto (1975). Trattato di semiotica generale. Milano: Bompiani.

ECO, Umberto (1979). The Role of the Reader. Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe (1986). “If (not, la nonna ha gli occhi grandi) Then... favole – computers e mondi possibili.” Studi filosofici 7.9. Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di filosofia e politica: 243-268.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe (1987). “Codice, testo e interpretazione.” Studi di codifica e tratta-mento automatico di testi. Ed. G. Gigliozzi. Roma: Bulzoni. 65-84.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe (1991). “Il genere narrativo tra analisi e generazione. Principi teorici e applicazioni computazionali.” Rècit et informatique. Ed. C. Cazalé. La Garenne-Colombes: Éditions de l'Espace européen.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe, Sandra Giuliani (1993a). “Una parola che non dice nulla. Le «Novelle per un anno» di Luigi Pirandello. Due letture critiche e un espe-rimento d’analisi computazionale.” Fine della storia e storie senza fine. Ed. C. Cazalé. Nanterre: Université Paris X – Nanterre. 87-89.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe (1993b). “La rete delle formiche. Un’applicazione di SebNet.” Fine della storia e storie senza fine. Ed. C. Cazalé. Nanterre: Université Paris X – Nanterre.137-157.

GIGLIOZZI, Giuseppe, and Paolo Sensini (1987). “SEB – Sistema esperto per l’analisi di brani. Per un’analisi automatica di fiabe.” Studi di codifica e trattamento automatico di testi. Ed. G. Gigliozzi. Roma: Bulzoni. 145-217.

GREIMAS, Algirdas Julien (1966). Sémantique structurale, recherche de méthode. Paris: Larousse.

GREIMAS, Algirdas Julien (1983). Du Sens II – Essais sémiotique. Paris: Éditions du Seuil.

GRUBER, Thomas R. (1993). “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontolo-gy Specifications.” Knowledge Acquisition 5.2: 199-220.

GRUBER, Thomas R. (2009). “Ontology.” Encyclopedia of Database Systems. Springer-Verlag.

GUARINO, Nicola, Daniel Oberle, and Steffen Staab (2009). “What is an Ontology?” Handbook on Ontologies. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer. 1-17.

HEATH, Tom, Christian Bizer (2011). Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology. Seattle, WA: Morgan & Claypool Publishers. doi:10.2200/S00334ED1V01Y201102WBE001.

HERMAN, David (1999). Narratologies: New Perspectives on Narrative Analysis. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

JEWELL, Michael O., et al. (2005). “OntoMedia: An ontology for the representation of heterogeneous media.” Proceeding of SIGIR workshop on Multi-media Information Retrieval. ACM SIGIR.

JOCKERS, Matthew Lee (2013). Macroanalysis: Digital Methods and Literary History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

LEHNERT, Wendy G. (1981). “Plot Units and Narrative Summarization.” Cognitive Science 5.4: 293-331.

LOTMAN, Jury M. (1972). La struttura del testo poetico. Milano: Mursia.

MANI, Inderjeet (2013). Computational Modeling of Narrative. Synthesis Lectures on Human Language Technologies 18. Seattle, WA: Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

MEISTER, Jan Christoph (2003). Computing Action. A Narratological Approach. Berlin: Walter De Gruyter.

MINSKY, Marvin Lee (1974). A Framework for Representing Knowledge. Cam-bridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology A.I. Laboratory.

MORETTI, Franco (2013a). “Operationalizing: Or, the Function of Measurement in Literary Theory.” New Left Review 84: 103-119.

MORETTI, Franco (2013b). Distant Reading. London: Verso.
PROPP, Vladimir Jakovievǐc (1968). Morphology of the Folktale. Austin: University of Texas Press.

RYAN, Marie-Laure (1991). Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

SCHANK, Roger C. (1975). Conceptual Information Processing. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

SCHANK, Roger C., Robert P. Abelson (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding: An Inquiry Into Human Knowledge Structures. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.

UNDERWOOD, Ted (2012). “Topic Modeling Made Just Simple Enough.” The Stone and the Shell. 7 Apr. 23 Jan. 2016. https://tedunderwood.wordpress.com/2012/04/07/topic-modeling-made-just-simple-enough/.

VAN DIJK, Teun A. (1977). “Perspective Paper: Complex Semantic Infor-mation Processing.” Natural Language in Information Processing. Eds. D.E. Walker, H. Karlgren and M. Kay. Skriptor: Stockholm. 127-163.

VAN DIJK, Teun A. (1979). “Cognitive Processing of Literary Discourse.” Poetics Today: 143-159.

W3C (2012a). “OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview.” Second Edition. 23 Jan. 2016. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview.

W3C (2012b). “OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Profiles.” Second Edition. 23 Jan. 2016. http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-profiles/.

W3C (2013). “RIF Primer.” Second Edition. 23 Jan. 2016. http://www.w3.org/TR/2013/NOTE-rif-primer-20130205/.

ZÖLLNER-WEBER, Amélie (2006). “Formale Repräsentation und Beschreibung von literarischen Figuren.” Jahrbuch für Computerphilologie 7. Ed. G. Braungart, P. Gendolla, and F. Jannidis.187-203.

ZÖLLNER-WEBER, Amélie (2007). “Noctua literaria – A System for a Formal Description of Literary Characters.” Data Structures for Linguistic Resources and Applications. Ed. G. Rehm, A. Witt, A., and L. Lemnitzer. Tübingen. 113-121.

ZÖLLNER-WEBER, Amélie (2009). “Ontologies and Logic Reasoning as Tools in Humani-ties?” Digital Humanities Quarterly 3.4). 23 Jan. 2016. http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/3/4/000068/000068.html.

ZÖLLNER-WEBER, Amélie, and Andres Witt (2006). “Ontology for a Formal Description of Literary Characters.” Proceedings of Digital Humanities 2006. Paris. 350-352.
Published
2016-02-28
How to Cite
CIOTTI, Fabio. Toward a Formal Ontology for Narrative. MATLIT: Materialities of Literature, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 29-44, feb. 2016. ISSN 2182-8830. Available at: <https://impactum-journals.uc.pt/matlit/article/view/2351>. Date accessed: 25 apr. 2019. doi: https://doi.org/10.14195/2182-8830.
Section
Secção Temática | Thematic Section

Keywords

computational narratology; digital literary studies; formal ontology; character theory; distant reading; text analysis