Locating New Literary Practices in Indian Digital Spaces
In this essay, we locate and explore new literary practices and expressions in Indian digital spaces such as SMS novel and social media narratives: poetry, flash fiction, twitterfiction which are not considered as electronic literature in India. The integration of technology and creativity is not a novel phenomenon in Indian literature where one can find the narrative tradition of ancient Indian literature which includes poetical words, paintings, and music, for instance, Pattachitra, Ragamala paintings and Chitra Kavi. Similarly, new literary practices and expressions in the digital environment include literary artefacts such as interfaces, images, audio and videos. These works serve as a gateway to exciting electronic literature in India.
new literary practices, digital environment, India, ancient literary pratices
- Abstract viewed = 182 times
- PDF viewed = 69 times
- HTML viewed = 37 times
“About Us - Terribly Tiny Tales” (2013). Facebook. 29 Jun. 2017. https://www.facebook.com/pg/terriblytinytales/about/?ref=page_internal.
ADIL, Sahar (2009). “Pinki Virani’s ‘Deaf Heaven’ in Audio-Mobile Book.” MyBangalore. 30 May. 2017. http://www.mybangalore.com/article/0709/pinki-viranis-deaf-heaven-in-audio-mobile-book.html.
AVNISAN, Abraham (2016). “Collocations.” 4 Mar. 2017. http://collection.eliterature.org/3/work.html?work=collocations.
BALDWIN, Sandy, Reham Hosny, and Kwabena Opoku-Agyemang (2017). “Introduction.” Hyperrhiz New Media Cultures. May 07. 2017. https://doi.org/10.20415/hyp/016.i01.
BOLTER, Jay David (1991). Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Hillsdale N.J.: Erlbaum.
BOLTER, Jay David, and Richard Grusin (2003). Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
BOLUK, Stephanie et. al., eds. (2016). Electronic Literature Collection Volume 3. Cambridge, MA: Electronic Literature Organization. 26 Dec. 2016. http://collection.eliterature.org/3/
BRONWEN, Thomas (2014). “140 Characters in Search of a Story: Twitterfiction as an Emerging Narrative Form.” Analyzing Digital Fiction. Ed. Alice Bell et.al. NY: Routledge.
CONDRA, Rashmi Arvind (2004). “Ragamala Paintings & Rajput Art of India (18th c.).” Anistoriton History Archaeology Art History. 8. 12 May. 2017. http://www.anistor.gr/english/enback/o041.htm.
DASA, R., Jahnava Devi. (2005). “The Sun Feature Stories Panoramic Palmleaf Manuscripts of Orissa.” 11 Nov. 2016. http://www.harekrsna.com/sun/features/02-07/features555.htm.
English Poetry in India (n.d). Facebook, 29 Jun. 2017. https://www.facebook.com/groups/191736614223767/
ELECTRONIC LITERATURE ORGANIZATION (1999). “What is E-Lit?” Electronic Literature Organization. 21 Dec. 2016. http://eliterature.org/what-is-e-lit.
GAYEN, Pinaki (n.d). Priyadarshi Patnaik. “From Popular Culture to Everyday Aesthetics: the Rickshaw Art of Allahabad.” Muse India 66. 12 Apr 12. 2017. http://www.museindia.com/Museindia/Gallery.
“Gita Govinda” (Song of the Cowherd) (2015). Wikimedia Commons. 4 Apr. 2017. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gita_Govinda_(Song_of_the_Cowherd)_Manuscript_LACMA_M.71.1.33.jpg.
GRIGAR, Dene (2011). “Narration in Social Media.” Presented at The 17th International Symposium on Electronic Art, Istanbul, Turkey. September 14-21, 2011. 29 Jun. 2016. http://isea2011.sabanciuniv.edu/panel/zones-contact-and-fields-consistency-electronic-literature
GUE, Ro (2004). Cloak room. 3825media. 4 Jan. 2016. https://www.blogger.com/profile/06943313941722618609.
GUE, Ro (2004). “Chapter 16.” Cloak room. 3825media. 4 Jan. 2016. http://cloakroom.blogspot.in/2004/12/cloakroom-chptr16.html
“First Android Phone in India launched today” (2009). The Economic Times. 18 May 2018. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/hardware/first-android-phone-in-india-launched-today/articleshow/4689118.cms
FUNKHOUSER, C.T. (2007). Prehistoric Digital Poetry: An Archeology of Forms, 1959-1995. The University of Alabama Press.
FLORES, Leonardo (2017). “Latin American, Caribbean and global electronic literature: generations, phases and traditions.” Artelogie, 11. 15 Feb 2018. http://journals.openedition.org/artelogie/1590.
HARIKUMAR, P. R. (n.d). Neelakkannukal (Blue Eyes). 4 Jan. 2016. https://sites.google.com/site/prharikumar/download.
HAYLES, N. Katherine (2002). Writing Machines. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
HAYLES, N. Katherine (2004). “ ‘Print is flat, code is deep’: The importance of media-specific analysis.” Poetics Today, 25. 1, pp. 67-90. 4 Apr. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1215/03335372-25-1-67
HAYLES, N. Katherine (2008). Electronic Literature: New Horizons for the Literary. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
ENKINS, Henry (2004). “Game Design as Narrative Architecture.” Electronic Book Review. 4 Apr. 2017. http://www.electronicbookreview.com/thread/firstperson/lazzi-fair.
JONES, Constance, and James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Encyclopedia of World Religions). NY: Facts on File.
KEMPTON, Karl (2010). “Visual Poetry: A Brief Overview of Ancestors and Traditions to The Present.” Paper presented at the Oceano, California. The Last Vispo. 29 May. 2017. http://www.thelastvispo.com/2012/04/07/karl-kempton-visual-poetry-a-brief-overview-of-ancestors-and-traditions-to-the-present-wbibliography/.
KHUSNER, Scott (2015). “Comparative Non-Literature and Everyday Digital Textuality.” The 2014 – 2015 Report on the State of the Discipline of Comparative Literature. 30 May. 2017. https://stateofthediscipline.acla.org/entry/comparative-non-literature-and-everyday-digital-textuality-0.
MEMMOT, Talan (2013). “Beyond Taxonomy: Digital Poetics and the Problem of Reading.” New Media Poetics: Contexts, Technotexts, and Theories, Eds. Adalaide Kirby Morris and Thomas Swiss. Cam-bridge, MA: The MIT Press.
MEURER, David M. (2012). “Towards Network Narrative: Electronic Literature, Communication Technologies, and Cultural Productions.” Dichtung Digital 3-4. 12 Apr. 2017. http://www.dichtung-digital.de/en/journal/aktuelle-nummer/?postID=593.
MILLER, Barbara Stoler, George Hawley, eds. and trans. (1998). Love Song of the Dark Lord Jayadeva’s Gitagovinda. NY: Columbia University Press.
MUKERJEE, Souvik (2017). “‘No Country for E-Lit?’ – India and Electronic Literature.” Hyperrhiz New Media Cultures. 09 May. 2017. https://doi.org/10.20415/hyp/016.e08.
NORMAN, Katharine (2016). “Window.” 03 March. 2017. http://collection.eliterature.org/3/work.html?work=window.
“Only 20 per cent Indians have access to Internet: Study” (2015). Indian Express. 24 Mar. 2016. http://indianexpress.com/article/technology/social/only-20-pc-indians-have-access-to-internet-study/.
ORMSTAD, Ottar (2016). “When.” 02 Apr. 2017. http://collection.eliterature.org/3/work.html?work=when.
Paperless Postcards (2016). Facebook. 29 Jun. https://www.facebook.com/paperlesspostcards/.
PAWLICKA, Urszula Anna (2016). “Visualizing Electronic Literature Collections.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 18.1. 3 Mar. 2017. https://doi.org/10.7771/1481-4374.2902.
PRESSMAN, Jessica (2014). “Electronic Literature as Comparative Literature.” The 2014 – 2015 Report on the State of the Discipline of Comparative Literature. 30 May. 2017. https://stateofthediscipline.acla.org/entry/electronic-literature-comparative-literature-0.
PULLINGER, Kate, and Chris Joseph (2011). Flight Path. 30 Jan. 2017. http://collection.eliterature.org/2/works/pullinger_flightpaths.html.
RADHAKRISHNAN, Abhimanyu (2009). “First Android Phone in India launched today.” The Economic Times. 18 May 2018. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/hardware/first-android-phone-in-india-launched-today/articleshow/4689118.cms
“Ragamala paintings” (2017). Wikipedia. 29 Jun. 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ragamala_paintings.
RAJARAMAN, V (2012). “History of Computing in India 1955-2010.” Supercomputer Education And Re-search Centre Indian Institute Of Science, Bangalore. 18 May 2018. http://www.cbi.umn.edu/hostedpublications/pdf/Rajaraman_HistComputingIndia.pdf.
RETTBERG, Scott (2009). “Communitizing Electronic Literature.” Digital Humanities Quarterly 3.2. 3 Mar. 2017. http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/3/2/000046/000046.html.
RETTBERG, Scott (2014). “Electronic Literature.” The Johns Hopkins Guide to Digital Media Eds. Marie-Laure Ryan, Lori Emerson, and Benjamin J. Robertson. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
ROY, Dhananjoy (2012). “Cell Phone Novel: A New Genre of Literature.” Language In India: Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow 12. 3, pp. 81–95. 3 Mar. 2017. www.languageinindia.com/march2012/cellphonenoveldhananjoyfinal.pdf.
SAMANTARAY, Prafulla Kumar (2005). “Patta Chitra – It’s Past and Present.” Orissagov.nic.in, 3 Mar. 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20090410050953/http://orissagov.nic.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/dec2005/engpdf/patta_chitra_its_past_and_present.pdf
SASTRIYAR , Surya Narayana (1939). Details of Chitra kavi. Eds. Palaram Iyer. Scribd. 20 May. 2017. https://www.scribd.com/doc/268383450/details-of-chitra-kavi-in-tamil.
SINGH, Ritika (2016). “Based on Brevity: Fiction in 140 Characters or Less.” [sic] - A Journal of Literature, Culture and Literary Translation 1.7. 3 Mar. 2017. https://www.sic-journal.org/ArticleView.aspx?lang=en&aid=435
SREEDHARAN, Chindu (2014). Epic retold: #Mahabharata #twitterFiction #Bhima #140 characters. Noida: HarperCollins.
SUNEETHA (2009). “Bangalore: SMS soaps on mobile.” Techgoss.com. 4 Apr. 2016. http://www.techgoss.com/Story/294S12-Bangalore--nbsp--SMS-soaps-on-mobile.aspx.
The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (2013). “Gitagovinda.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 29 Jun. 2017. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Gitagovinda.
Terrible Tiny Tales (2013). Facebook 29 Jun. 2017. https://www.facebook.com/terriblytinytales/.
URIBE, Ana Maria (2016). “Tipoemas y Anipoemas.”3 Mar 2017. http://collection.eliterature.org/3/work.html?work=tipoemas-y-anipoemas.
WIESE, Maíra Borges, and Daniele Giampa eds. (2015). “Interview with Alan Bigelow.” Electronic Literature Review. 4 Mar. 2017. https://electronicliteraturereview.wordpress.com/2015/04/09/interview-with-alan-bigelow/.
“Word Structures and special organization (Chitra Kavi).” Acharya Multilingual Computing for Literacy Education. 29 Jun. 2017. http://www.acharya.gen.in:8080/linguistics/word_structures.php.
YOUNG, Karl (1984). “Notation and the Art of Reading.” Open Letter. 4 Apr. 2016. http://www.thing.net/~grist/ld/young/notation/notate.htm.
“2017 Mobile Internet Report.” Internet and Mobile Association of India. 18 May 2018. http://www.iamai.in/sites/default/files/research/pdf/Mobile%20Internet%20Report%202017.pdf.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
MATLIT embraces full open access to all issues. Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. The article can be quoted but not changed and presented differently.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- A CC licensing information in a machine-readable format is embedded in all articles published by MATLIT.
- Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
- No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measuresthat legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
- You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
- No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.