Uma súplica pelo estudo da relação entre a Moralidade Aretaica e as Moralidades Deôntica e de Responsabilidade

Palavras-chave: moralidade aretaica, moralidade deôntica, moralidade da responsabilidade, funcionamento moral, Kohlberg

Resumo

Embora as moralidades deôntica, aretaica e de responsabilidade tenham sido muito investigadas, a relação entre elas, nomeadamente a relação entre a moralidade aretaica e as moralidades deôntica e de responsabilidade, têm sido raramente estudadas. Estudar esta última relação é o principal objetivo deste estudo. Na 1ª parte, estabelecemos o contexto para o estudo desta relação, enquanto argumentamos que a teoria de Kohlberg é, acima de tudo, uma teoria sobre a moralidade deôntica. Na 2ª parte, elaboramos sobre as razões que levaram Kohlberg a não introduzir uma moralidade aretaica na sua teoria sobre a moralidade. Na 3ª parte, mostramos que tais razões são problemáticas. Na 4ª parte, argumentamos que há muito a ganhar se a psicologia da moralidade tiver em conta a moralidade aretaica e as suas relações com a moralidade deôntica e a moralidade da responsabilidade ou do cuidar. Na 5ª parte, apresentamos os resultados principais de uma pesquisa exploratória sobre as avaliações dêonticas, aretaicas e de responsabilidade feitas por um grupo de pré-adolescentes (n = 32) e adolescentes (n = 32) relativas a acções hipotéticas, e analisamos as relações entre tais avaliações. Finalmente, sumarizamos as principais ideias deste estudo; referimo-nos a algumas das suas limitações; sugerimos exemplos de investigações futuras; e argumentamos que as relações entre estes três tipos de moralidade podem constituir um modelo, o modelo aretaico, deôntico e de responsabilidade, que nos ajude a compreender a transição da cognição moral para a acção moral. No entanto, esta sugestão requere mais investigação metodológica e empírica.

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Publicado
2019-12-18
Como Citar
Lourenço, O. (2019). Uma súplica pelo estudo da relação entre a Moralidade Aretaica e as Moralidades Deôntica e de Responsabilidade. Psychologica, 62(2), 117-142. https://doi.org/10.14195/1647-8606_62-2_7
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Artigos